de Melo, J., Nouar, M. & Solleder, J.-M. (2018) Integration along the Abuja road map: A progress report. in Industries without Smokestacks edited by Richard Newfarmer, John Page, and Finn Tarp; Oxford University Press
This paper reviews integration among the eight African Regional Economic Communities by comparing their characteristics and progress with three other South–South Regional Integration Arrangements. Three conclusions emerge: (i) slow progress towards meeting overly ambitious objectives; (ii) small changes in the destination of trade across all Regional Economic Communities, indicative of persistent high trade costs and few new manufactures products destined for geographically close markets; and (iii) compared with other South–South Regional Integration Arrangements, the Regional Economic Communities include a high number of provisions not covered in Word Trade Organization negotiations, but these have low legal enforceability. Reasons for this slow progress are explored in the paper.
A longer, more technical version of the same chapter is available as a Working Paper: de Melo, J., Nouar, M. & Solleder, J.-M. (2017) Integration along the Abuja road map: A progress report. WIDER Working Paper 2017/103. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.
de Melo, J. & Solleder, J-M. (2019) NTMs and other Trade Measures for the Environment in ASEAN. in Regional Integration and Non-Tariff Measures in ASEAN edited by Lili Yang Ing, Ralf Peters, and Olivier Cadot; Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)
An open world trading system with low barriers to trade in Environmental Goods (EGs) and Environmental Services (ESs) accompanied by corrective SPS and TBT measures is necessary for the World Trading System to be compatible with the environmental objectives in the SDGs. So far, the political process and technical difficulties in defining EGs and ESs have plagued multilateral negotiations under the Doha Round and those under the Environmental Goods Agreement (EGA) resulting in lists of EGs and ESs with many weaknesses.
The chapter explores differences in policy measures across broad categories of EGs and ESs. Comparisons of EG and non-EG groups reveal that applied tariffs are lower for EGs for all countries and group of countries regardless of the selected EG list. On average, descriptive indices of NTMs are quite similar for EG and non-EG product lists revealing few robust differences between EGs and non-EGs and across countries. However, the regulatory distance is less among ASEAN membership than among EGA membership, suggesting more favourable prospects for fruitful negotiations in the ASEAN group. The paper closes with gravity-based panel estimates of bilateral trade. Two results stand out: on average, NTMs restrict bilateral trade by about 20 percent, but not differently for EGs than for non-EGs or for ASEAN countries as a group relative to other countries. The chapter concludes with suggestions for reduction in tariffs for suitably defined EGs and more open regulatory measures for ESs.
Working paper: de Melo, J. & Solleder, J-M. (2017) NTMs and other Trade Measures for the Environment in ASEAN. FERDI working paper P206, décembre.